Technology explained.

Physical Water Conditioning

Physical Water Conditioning refers to the effects that can be induced in water, before chemical changes to compounds and elements take place.  

The Electrochemistry
When electrically neutral chemical compounds are dissolved in water they form oppositely charged ions by process of dissociation. These ions are independent particles but maintain a connection to their opposites while in solution. When the water becomes supersaturated, crystallization occurs and the ions are joined again.

Dissolved Solids
Dissolved solids in water are not definite compounds but charged particles (ions). In addition to hardness salts – calcium and magnesium, frequently silica, sodium sulphate and sodium chloride is found. Charged acid radical ions are known as anions and metal ions as cations.

Water pH
pH values are measured on a scale from 0-14, 7 is neutral, under 7 acidic and above 7 alkaline. When there are equal numbers of Hydrogen and Hydroxol ions in the water it is neutral (pH7). In solution acids give Hydrogen ions and alkalines give Hydroxol ions. When Hydrogen ions increase the water becomes more acidic (lower pH) and when Hydroxol ions increase it becomes more alkaline (higher pH).

Super saturation occurs when the dissolved solids in the water exceeds its saturation point (equilibrium). If the conditions are right, crystallization will start, either homogeneously – within the solution – or heterogeneously – as scale on surfaces – such as heat exchangers. Flow-Tech creates an electrical field that favors homogeneous crystallization. This low frequency electrical field is randomly pulsed thousands of times per second and causes the formation of clusters that act as seed crystals. These seed crystals are formed both in unsaturated and saturated solutions and as they grow, stable nuclei are created. The pulsed electrical field created by Flow-Tech throughout the system causes the crystals to continue to grow. This is critical in areas of the system where changes in pressure and temperature cause super saturation and calcium and magnesium precipitates from solution.

Scale Prevention
By installing FLOW-TECH on your water system, large numbers of seed crystals are formed in solution. When the water becomes super saturated, these crystals cause homogeneous crystallization to occur in suspension, and therefore minimize any heterogeneous crystallization (scale) on surfaces. For this process to be successful it is necessary to create an electrical field that covers the entire plumbing system, since the seed crystals eventually return to solution when they leave the electrical field. This is why other physical water treatments that use coils to create localized magnetic fields have very limited benefits.

Scale Removal
When FLOW-TECH is installed it will start to dissolve existing scale within the system. This may take several months and depends on the conditions within the system. By the process of homogeneous crystallization, unsaturated solution is created. This unsaturated solution dissolves existing surface scale and homogeneous crystallization occurs when the solution becomes super saturated. If there is a lot of existing scale in the system, or if it is a closed system, these crystals should be removed by filtration, in an open system they will be removed with the flow.